RUSSIA. 571 Tagil has been famous all over the world. The deposits are scattered over quite a distance north and south, both on the eastern and western slopes of the range, and lie between 54° and 60° north latitude and 56° and 62° east longitude, an area about 240 by 420 miles. Some of the beds are brown ore, occurring in strata 130 feet thick and containing 60 per cent, of iron after roasting, while other deposits are of magnetite and are among the most important in the world. The chief center of the eastern Urals is near Msjne Tagual, where the hill known as Wissokaia Gora offers a deposit about a mile square, in which the best ore runs from 60 to 65 per cent, in iron. The famous iron mountain of Blagodat is thirty miles north of Nisjne Tagnal and three miles from the Kouehwa station on the TJral Railway. This mountain is seamed with ore running from 52 to 58 per cent, in iron. The more northern deposits in the Ural district are difficult of access, but the southern are on the line of the railway from Perm to Ekaterinburg. In 1888 this district produced over one-half of all the pig-iron made in Russia. Since then the proportion has decreased, owing to the growth of South Russia, but the actual tonnage of pig-iron has doubled and the.output of steel increased ninefold. This development has gone on in spite of the fact that good fuel is scarce. There are large deposits of coal, but the quality is bad, the ash running from 17 to 23 per cent., and it gives a poor coke. • A little anthracite is found on the western side of the mountains, but it has not been used to any extent. The almost universal fuel is charcoal, and this is not always of the best. In the southern part pine wood is used and the blast furnaces are built as much as 59 feet high, this being the maximum allowable, but northward the charcoal becomes poorer and the possible height of the furnaces less, so that in the Central Urals they are only 50 feet and in the northern part only 42 feet, the average production for one furnace per day being twenty tons. It may seem impracticable to carry on metallurgical operations on a vast scale when charcoal is the only available fuel, but certain things must be taken into account. First: The great iron district of South Russia is 1200 miles away—rather far for Russian railways —and when it comes to water transportation the advantage is all the other way, for the Ural iron works would be shipping down stream.